Recommended readings re. Plant Defense (S. Xiao 2/07)

*   of special interest 

** of outstanding interest


·         * Allen, R.L., Bittner-Eddy, P.D., Grenville-Briggs, L.J., Meitz, J.C., Rehmany, A.P., Rose, L.E., and Beynon, J.L. (2004). Host-parasite coevolutionary conflict between Arabidopsis and downy mildew. Science 306, 1957-1960.

This paper reported the cloning of the avirulence gene, ATR13, that triggers RPP13-mediated resistance. The authors showed that diversifying selection acts on both the R and the cognate Avr gene, providing the first piece of molecular evidence for coevolution of R and Avr.


·         *Asai, T., Tena, G., Plotnikova, J., Willmann, M.R., Chiu, W.L., Gomez-Gomez, L., Boller, T., Ausubel, F.M., and Sheen, J. (2002). MAP kinase signalling cascade in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Nature 415, 977-983.

This paper identified the first complete MAPK signaling cascade that function downstream of the flagellin receptor FLS2, a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) receptor kinase involved in plant innate immunity.


·         Ausubel, F.M. (2005). Are innate immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved? Nat Immunol 6, 973-979.

A nice recent review on plant innate immunity in which the author suggests that the analogous regulatory modules used by plants and animals may be a consequence of convergent evolution rather than an ancient common origin.


·         * Axtell, M.J., and Staskawicz, B.J. (2003). Initiation of RPS2-specified disease resistance in Arabidopsis is coupled to the AvrRpt2-directed elimination of RIN4. Cell 112, 369-377.

This paper provided strong evidence for “the guard hypothesis”


·         Collins, N.C., Thordal-Christensen, H., Lipka, V., Bau, S., Kombrink, E., Qiu, J.L., Huckelhoven, R., Stein, M., Freialdenhoven, A., Somerville, S.C., and Schulze-Lefert, P. (2003). SNARE-protein-mediated disease resistance at the plant cell wall. Nature 425, 973-977.

This paper characterized the function of PEN1, a SNARE-encoding gene in host-specific and nonhost resistance.


·         ** Dangl, J.L., and Jones, J.D. (2001). Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection. Nature 411, 826-833.

It is probably still the best comprehensive review ever on plant defenses to pathogens. A must read.


·         * Durrant, W.E., and Dong, X. (2004). Systemic acquired resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol 42, 185-209.

An excellent review on SA and SAR and the role of NPR1 gene in plant defense.



·         Hammond-Kosack, K.E., and Parker, J.E. (2003). Deciphering plant-pathogen communication: fresh perspectives for molecular resistance breeding. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14, 177-193.

A comprehensive review on the R gene type, signaling components and more.


·         He, Z., Wang, Z.Y., Li, J., Zhu, Q., Lamb, C., Ronald, P., and Chory, J. (2000). Perception of brassinosteroids by the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase BRI1. Science 288, 2360-2363.

A well-conceived domain-swapping experiment to test the hypothesis that it is the LRR domain that determines the ligand-binding specificity.


·         Kim, M.G., da Cunha, L., McFall, A.J., Belkhadir, Y., DebRoy, S., Dangl, J.L., and Mackey, D. (2005). Two Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors inhibit RIN4-regulated basal defense in Arabidopsis. Cell 121, 749-759.

This paper provided evidence to suggest that there is mechanistic link between basal resistance and R gene-mediated resistance.


·         ** Moffett, P., Farnham, G., Peart, J., and Baulcombe, D.C. (2002). Interaction between domains of a plant NBS-LRR protein in disease resistance-related cell death. Embo J 21, 4511-4519.

An elegant analysis to show that there is intra-molecular interaction between different domains in the CC-NBS-LRR protein Rx. A breakthrough in understanding how R proteins may work.


·         ** Mou, Z., Fan, W., and Dong, X. (2003). Inducers of plant systemic acquired resistance regulate NPR1 function through redox changes. Cell 113, 935-944.

This paper filled the gap from the central regulatory protein NPR1 to activation of defense genes. It showed that upon pathogen infection, NPR1 changes from oligomer to monomer and enters to the nucleus where it binds to TGA transcription factor to enhance PR gene expression.


·         ** Rooney, H.C., Van't Klooster, J.W., van der Hoorn, R.A., Joosten, M.H., Jones, J.D., and de Wit, P.J. (2005). Cladosporium Avr2 inhibits tomato Rcr3 protease required for Cf-2-dependent disease resistance. Science 308, 1783-1786.

An excellent paper reporting that the Rcr3 is the host target of Avr2 and Cf2 may “guard” Rcr3, providing strong evidence for “the guard hypothesis”.


·         ** Shao, F., Golstein, C., Ade, J., Stoutemyer, M., Dixon, J.E., and Innes, R.W. (2003). Cleavage of Arabidopsis PBS1 by a bacterial type III effector. Science 301, 1230-1233.

Similar to the above paper but in a different context.


·         Tian, D., Traw, M.B., Chen, J.Q., Kreitman, M., and Bergelson, J. (2003). Fitness costs of R-gene-mediated resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 423, 74-77.

This paper provided evidence for existence of a “cost-of-resistance” for the first time.


·         Wendehenne, D., Durner, J., and Klessig, D.F. (2004). Nitric oxide: a new player in plant signalling and defence responses. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7, 449-455.

A nice recent review on the role of NO in plant defense.





New research and review articles published in 2006

·         * Chisholm, S.T., Coaker, G., Day, B., and Staskawicz, B.J. (2006). Host-microbe interactions: shaping the evolution of the plant immune response. Cell 124, 803-814.

Excellent review on evolution of two distinct yet evolutionarily interrelated types of plant defense systems.


·         *He, P., Shan, L., Lin, N.C., Martin, G.B., Kemmerling, B., Nurnberger, T., and Sheen, J. (2006). Specific bacterial suppressors of MAMP signaling upstream of MAPKKK in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Cell 125, 563-575.

An elegant study that identified the bacterium type III effectors avrPto and avrPtoB suppress nonhost defense signaling upstream of a MAPK cascade, revealing a fundamental role of MAMP signaling in nonhost immunity, and a novel action of type III effectors.


·         **Jones, J.D., and Dangl, J.L. (2006). The plant immune system. Nature 444, 323-329.

A classic “milestone” review of the current understanding of the plant innate immunity system.


·         **Melotto, M., Underwood, W., Koczan, J., Nomura, K., and He, S.Y. (2006). Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion. Cell 126, 969-980.

Very interesting findings on how plants and pathogenic bacteria battle over the control of stomata closure/open.


·         Navarro, L., Dunoyer, P., Jay, F., Arnold, B., Dharmasiri, N., Estelle, M., Voinnet, O., and Jones, J.D. (2006). A plant miRNA contributes to antibacterial resistance by repressing auxin signaling. Science 312, 436-439.

The first finding that induction of miRNA plays a role in basal resistance to bacteria via repressing auxin signaling


·         Nomura, K., Debroy, S., Lee, Y.H., Pumplin, N., Jones, J., and He, S.Y. (2006). A bacterial virulence protein suppresses host innate immunity to cause plant disease. Science 313, 220-223.

This study revealed that a bacterial effector protein targets and triggers degradation of a host component of innate immunity via the host proteasome.


·         *Shen, Q.H., Saijo, Y., Mauch, S., Biskup, C., Bieri, S., Keller, B., Seki, H., Ulker, B., Somssich, I.E., and Schulze-Lefert, P. (2006). Nuclear Activity of MLA Immune Receptors Links Isolate-Specific and Basal Disease-Resistance Responses. Science.

This work demonstrated that the coiled-coil domain of a group of barley CC-NBS-LRR proteins interacts with two WRKY transcription factors in the nucleus upon R-Avr recognition and de-repress their function in negative regulation of basal resistance, thus linking the R-gene specific  resistance to basal resistance.


·        Zipfel, C., Kunze, G., Chinchilla, D., Caniard, A., Jones, J.D., Boller, T., and Felix, G. (2006). Perception of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the receptor EFR restricts Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Cell 125, 749-760.

Identification of the plant receptor for another bacterial PAMP (EF-TU), further stimulating the search for plant receptors for general conserved pathogen features (PAMPs).