Spring 1998
Exam 2

  1. Multiple choice. Choose the single best answer. Each question is worth 3 points.
  1. Which of the following is a member of the order Insectivora?
    1. anteater
    2. mole
    3. mosquito
    4. bat
  1. Diheterothermy in bats is characterized by
    1. seasonal periods of obligate hibernation
    2. nightly periods of torpor
    3. regulating body temperature at one level during activity and another, lower level during roosting
    4. having a constant body temperature regardless of environmental temperatures or level of activity
  1. Which trait is unique to primates?
    1. stereoscopic vision
    2. convoluted neopallium
    3. opposable digits
    4. none of the above
  1. With what do members of the family Myrmecophagidae crush their food?
    1. shearing molars
    2. piercing canines
    3. pyloric portion of their stomachs
    4. ischial callosities
  1. The condition of having overlap between the fields of vision of the right and left eyes is called
    1. binocular vision
    2. stereoscopic vision
    3. both of the above
    4. none of the above
  1. Syndactyly in the family Bradypodidae is associated with
    1. saltatory locomotion
    2. an arboreal lifestyle
    3. cursoriality
    4. a fossorial lifestyle
  1. Parental care in some species of the order Scandentia is notable because
    1. offspring are highly precocial and eat solid food from birth
    2. offspring are left unattended in a nest and nursed at 48 hour intervals
    3. offspring are carried in a marsupium
    4. mother and offspring communicate using stridulation
  1. The orders Xenarthra, Pholidota and Tubulidentata were once grouped together into the order Edentata because
    1. they all lack teeth as adults
    2. they all are arboreal
    3. some members of each taxon have epidermal scales
    4. some members of each taxon eat ants and termites
  1. Monogamy in the order Macroscelidea is characterized by
    1. close proximity between the male and female
    2. parental care provided by both parents
    3. territorial defense by both sexes
    4. all of the above
  1. Which has NOT been offered as an explanation for why bats hang upside-down while roosting?
    1. It is easier to take off into flight from an upside-down position.
    2. The leg bones are too fragile to support the bat's body weight when upright.
    3. The hip joints are reversed to enable the hind legs to control the uropatagium.
    4. All of the above have been proposed as explanations.
  1. A moist, glandular nose pad
    1. rhinarium
    2. ischial callosity
    3. diastema
    4. rostrum
  1. Which gliding mammal has a patagium that completely encloses the body (including front and hind digits, limbs and tail)?
    1. sugar glider
    2. flyinglemur
    3. flying squirrel
    4. aye-aye
  1. The megachiroptera are characterized by
    1. daily periods of torpor
    2. reliance on echolocation for navigation and foraging
    3. worldwide distribution
    4. reliance on vision for navigation and foraging
  1. Matching. Match the taxomonic group with the most appropriate sensory system characteristics (8 points).
    1. Heteromyidae
    2. Talpidae
    3. Indriidae
    4. Soricidae
    5. Desmodontidae
    6. Pteropodidae
    7. Tenrecidae
    8. Bathyergidae
    9. Cercopithecidae
    10. Daubentoniidae

____ able to detect differences in air currents with eyes
____ one species able to detect electromagnetic fields
____ uses elongate finger for detecting insect prey
___ has heat sensing pits on nose
____ reduced sense of smell because of greater reliance on vision
____ has greatly enlarged auditory bullae and modifications of the ossicles to detect faint, low frequency sounds
____ uses audible clicks to detect cave opening
____ produces sounds by vibrating its spines (stridulation)

Match the morphological specializations with the form of locomotion (8 points).
a. true flight
b. suspensory locomotion and/or brachiation
c. saltatory locomotion
d. swimming
e. burrowing
f. gliding
g. verticle clinging and leaping h. semibrachiation

____ elongation of the tarsal bone, muscular thighs, stereosc
____ keeled sternum, extreme elongation of the metacarpals and phalanges
____ jointed cranium
____ splayed limbs, broad forefeet, strong claws
____ dorso-ventrally flattened tail, valvular ears and nostrils
____ prehensile tail
____ curved digits

Short answer (5 points each).

  1. Characterize the four phases of the population cycle in rodents of the subfamily Arvicolinae with respect to reproduction and population dynamics.
  1. Which animals within the order Insectivora are venomous (common name is okay)? Where is the venom produced, how is it delivered and why might these animals use it?
  1. Describe three anatomical specializations associated with feeding on ants or termites and name three mammals from different orders that show these traits (give common names and orders).
  1. How could you immediately identify the following groups based upon their skulls?
    O. Lagomorpha
    O. Insectivora
    F. Myrmecophagidae
    F. Hystricidae
    F. Tarsiidae
  1. What morphological specializations are associated with the following forms of primate locomotion?
    vertical clinging and leaping
    terrestrial quadrupedalism
  1. Differentiate between CF and FM types of echolocation. In which kinds of situations is each favored (ie, what kinds of information can they provide)?
  1. Compare and contrast the dentition in the orders Rodentia and Lagomorpha. How do these features relate to dietary habits?
  1. Describe morphological specializations of bats that are nectar feeders. How have plants coevolved to accomodate pollination by bats?
  1. How do members of the family Castoridae protect their eyes, ears and lungs when submerged?