Multiple Choice

_____1. Which biome is the richest in terms of the number of species? (A) Tundra, (B) Desert,
(C) Tropical Rain Forest, (D) Taiga.
_____2. What trees dominate the Boreal forest. (A) maple and oak, (B) redwood and Douglas fir, (C) hemlock and dogwood, (D) spruce and fir.
_____3. An organism that eats a green plant is known as; (A) primary producer, (B) primary consumer, (C) primary carnivore, (D) secondary consumer.
_____4. A large, relatively distinct ecosystem is called a; (A) community, (B) population, (C) biome, (D) ecosphere.
_____5. The state of stability found at the end of succession is called; (A) pioneer, (B) climax,
(C) terminal, (D) endpoint.
_____6. The change of plant cover from one type of community to another type is called;
(A) progression, (B) evolution, (C) dispersion, (D) succession.
_____7. All of the populations of different species that occupy and are adapted to a given geographical area are referred to as; (A) biosphere, (B) community, (C) ecosystem, (D) ecosphere.
_____8. What kind of organism is first in primary succession on rock? (A) algae, (B) moss,
(C) lichen, (D) grass.
_____9. The movement of energy through the biosphere is; (A) linear, (B) vertical, (C) horizontal, (D) cyclic.
_____10. The distribution of biomes may be controlled by; (A) temperature, (B) precipitation,
(C) altitude, (D) all of these.
_____11. The term "ecology" may best be defined as; (A) the study of homes, (B) the study of the relationships between living creature where they live, (C) the study of nature, (D) the study of conservation.
_____12. The first law of thermodynamics states; (A) energy may be used to heat our homes, (B) energy is continually lost from an ecosystem, (C) energy can not be created nor destroyed, (D) energy cannot change from one form to another.
_____13. To be an effective allergy medicine, what must be done; (A) block antibodies, (B) block antigens (C) block histamines, (D) all of the above.
_____14. The concept that if a part of a plant was shaped like a human body part, it would be useful in treatment ailments of that part of the body is; (A) the doctrine of signatures, (B) the doctrine of herbalism, (C) the doctrine of analogy, (D) the doctrine of homology.
_____15. One class of chemicals found in plants which are addictive, poisonous, painkillers, and cures are; (A) proteins, (B) glycosides, (C) alkaloids, (D) herbals.
_____16. Any foreign substance that elicits the formation of antibodies is called; (A) histogen,
(B) Immunogen, (C) mastogen, (D) antigen.
_____17. When one has an allergic reaction such as itchy, watery eyes, sneezing, elevated temperature, or localized redness, what is actually happening; (A) the body is attempting to protect itself against a foreign substance, (B) the body is really sick, (C) the immune system is compromised, (D) none of these, (E) all of these.
_____18. The principal cause of secondary succession is; (A) new seeds blow into a field,
(B) disturbance such as a forest fire, (C) the action of lichens and mosses, (D) the application of insecticides.
_____19. One of the main reasons for extinction of many animals has been; (A) hunting and fishing by humans, (B) habitat destruction by humans, (C) excessive use of herbicides by humans, (D) None of the above.
_____20. If deserts are defined as areas that receive less than 25 cm of precipitation per year, could the tundra be considered a cold desert? (A) yes, (B) no.
_____21. Climax communities are thought to be ____?_____ ; (A) changing with the environment, (B) in equilibrium with the environment, (C) influenced by the environment, (D) independent of. the environment.
_____22. The northernmost land biome is (A) rain forest, (B) desert, (C) grassland, (D) tundra.
_____23. Which of the following is a pollutant in one part of the atmosphere and a normal component in another part of the atmosphere; (A) ozone, (B) methane, (C) carbon dioxide, (D) nitrogen.
_____24. Maintaining genetic diversity in agricultural crops is important in order to; (A) produce a monoculture, (B) get the highest yield, (C) prevent catastrophic disease epidemics. (D) reduce pesticide damage.
_____25. Global warming is thought to be caused by; (A) volcanic activity and its release of hot gasses, (B) the production of pollutants which are contaminants in oil, gas and coal, (C) an increase in carbon dioxide, (D) an increase in ozone levels, (E) changes in worldwide weather patterns.
____26. Ozone absorbs; (A) ultraviolet light, (B) infrared light, (C) visible light, (D) oxygen, (E) no form of light.
_____27. What would be a consequence of decreasing the ozone layer; (A) healthier plant growth, (B) cooler earth temperatures, (C) an increase in skin cancer, (D) fewer health problems.
_____28. The place where the ozone layer has decreased the most is over; (A) North America,
(B) Antarctica, (C) New Zealand, (D) Europe.
_____29. Which of the following is not a reason to be cautious about herbal cures; (A) plants do not contain chemicals that can alleviate human symptoms, (B) the amount of active ingredient can vary from one batch of plants to another, (C) long term doses have an unknown result, (D) companies can market any plant material under any name as long as they do not implicitly claim a specific health benefit.
_____30. Before eating cassava, people of Central and South America soak them and discard the water. What is it that they are trying to get rid of; (A) a bitter alkaloid, (B) a morphine-like compound, (C) extra starch, (D) cyanide.
_____31. Which of the following is not considered a greenhouse gas; (A) methane,
(B) carbon dioxide, (C) water vapor, (D) ozone.
_____32. The molecule in CFC’s that is most significant for its interaction with ozone and other molecules in the atmosphere is (A) carbon, (B) fluorine, (C) chlorine, (D) hydrogen.
_____33. Since the industrial revolution CO2 in the atmosphere has increased by how much;
(A) 100%, (B) 50%, (C) 20-25% (D) 10-20%.
_____34. The buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere is one reason for the (A) greenhouse effect,
(B) the green revolution, (C) increased cataracts in humans, (D) the industrial revolution.
_____35. The extinction of the dinosaurs is considered to be part of; (A) mass extinction,
(B) background extinction, (C) declining evolution, (D) cataclysmic evolution.
_____36. Useful indicators of pollution are; (A) bacteria (B) fungi, (C) wheat plants, (D) lichens.
_____37. What effect will deforestation of the tropical rain forest have on the climate in that area; (A) no effect (B) rainfall will be increased even more, (C) rainfall will be reduced and the area will become a desert (D) it will become much colder.
_____38. The innermost layer of the atmosphere is called; (A) the stratosphere,
(B) the troposphere, (C) the ionosphere, (D) the thermosphere.
_____39 The greatest genetic diversity is found in (A) wild plants, (B) domesticated plants,
(C) laboratory strains, (D) none of these.
_____40. The most important modern cause of species extinction is; (A) habitat destruction or alteration. , (B) fishing and hunting for sport, (C) pest and predator control, (D) hunting for commercial products.
_____41. Many plants produce poisonous or harmful chemicals to; (A) create fertilizer from dead animal bodies, (B) encourage their cultivation by man, (C) as a protection against herbivores that might eat them, (D) no apparent reason, since it is so random.
_____42. Which of the following would global warming not be expected to affect; (A) average summer temperature, (B) ozone levels in the atmosphere, (C) ocean water levels, (D) distribution of plant and animal species characteristic of certain biomes.
_____43. Bringing together desired genes from individuals of the same species by a controlled mating is called; (A) genetic engineering, (B) plant breeding, (C) tissue culture, (D) molecular hybridization.
_____44. Which of the following is a problem associated with human food resources;
(A) dependence on too few different crop plants, (B) declining genetic diversity, (C) rapid population growth, (D) all of the above.
_____45. What is the definition of a gene bank.; (A) a place where we store our Levis, (B) a place to store seeds, (C) a tube of recombinant DNA molecules, (D) none of the above.
_____46. The process by which the dinosaurs became extinct is referred to as; (A) background extinction, (B) mass extinction, (C) geologic extinction, (D) negative extinction.
_____47. Today, mass extinction is going on at an alarming rate and is principally caused by; (A) meteorites hitting the earth, (B) human activities, (C) climatic changes, (D) pest and predator control.
_____48. The greatest genetic diversity is found in; (A) plants in their native habitat, (B) domesticated plants, (C) genetically engineered plants, (D) hybrid plants.
_____49. A greenhouse gas in the atmosphere causes a heat gain because it; (A) is highly toxic, (B) is present in very high levels in comparison to other gasses in the atmosphere, (C) reacts with other gasses in the atmosphere to produce heat, (D) is transparent to visible light but it prevents infrared radiation from exiting the atmosphere.
_____50. The term that describes a basic human need to associate with nature is;
(A) biotechnology, (B) biopsychology, (C) bioherbalism, (D) biophilia.

Answers-1.C, 2.D, 3.B, 4.C, 5. B, 6.D, 7.B, 8.C, 9.A, 10.D, 11.B, 12.C, 13.C, 14.A, 15.C, 16.D, 17.A, 18.B, 19.B, 20.A, 21.B, 22.D, 23.A, 24.C, 25.C, 26.A, 27.C, 28.B, 29.D, 30.D, 30.D, 31.C, 32.C, 33.C, 34. A, 35.A, 36.D, 37.C, 38.B, 39.A, 40.A, 41.C, 42.B, 43.B, 44.D, 45.B, 46.B, 47.B,48.A, 49.D, 50.D.