The superorder Euarchontaglires is comprised of five orders:

  1. Rodentia
  2. Lagomorpha
  3. Dermoptera
  4. Scandentia
  5. Primates

I. Order Rodentia - mice, kangaroo rats, porcupines, squirrels, etc.

  1. Most notable characteristic: Teeth

    1. Rootless
    2. Incisors
    3. Cheek teeth
    4. Diastema
    5. Complex muscles to control chewing and gnawing

  1. Convergence with other eutherian mammals

Rodent Non-rodent
capybara hippopotamus (Order Artiodactyla)
flying squirrel flying lemur (Order Dermoptera)
mole-rats moles (Order Soricomorpha)
mara rabbit (Order Lagomorpha)

II. Order Lagomorpha - rabbits, hares, and pikas

  1. Characteristics related to diet

    1. Teeth

      1. Incisors
      2. No canines
      3. Cheek teeth - lower jaw narrower than upper jaw

  1. Characteristics related to quadrupedal saltatory locomotion

    1. Digitigrade/ plantigrade
    2. Skull

      1. Fenestration
      2. Jointed

  1. Lagomorph? Artiodactyl?

III. Order Dermoptera - flying lemurs

Name means "skin wing"

  1. Adaptations associated with locomotion
    1. Patagium most complete of any mammal
    2. Best gliders of all mammals

IV. Order Scandentia - tree shrews

  1. Characteristics of the order

    1. Once considered a primitive primate, then lumped with Insectivora, now considered closely related to Primates and Dermopterans
    2. Look like squirrels (long furry tails)
    3. Teeth resemble insectivores somewhat (caniform incisor, reduced canine)
    4. Important differences between tree shrews and insectivores:

      1. Complete zygomatic arch
      2. Has auditory bullae
      3. Big brain case for its size
      4. Has a cecum

  1. Tree shrews - one cool thing!

    1. Young left in a separate nest
    2. Nursed once/48 h
    3. Weaned in a month

V. Order Primates

  1. General characteristics (adaptations for arboreality?) - None are unique to primates!

    1. Locomotion

      1. Pentadactyly
      2. Nails in stead of claws (unguiculate)
      3. Prehensility of hands and feet
      4. Traction ridges on tips of digits
      5. Tendency towards erectness of posture

    1. Teeth and diet

      1. Generalized teeth (bunodont molars)
      2. Generalized diet

    1. Brain and behavior

      1. More reliance on vision (forward facing eyes, binocular, stereoscopic, most have color vision)
      2. Reduction of snout
      3. Big, complex brains (especially cerebral cortex)
      4. Flexibility of behavior
      5. In many species, complex social organization

    1. Living primates

      1. Suborder Strepsirhini - Prosimians (lemur, galago, loris)
        1. General characteristics
          1. ancestral morphology and possibly behavior (mostly nocturnal, relies on sense of smell)
          2. restricted geographical range (Old World, many restricted to Madagascar)
          3. rhinarium
          4. toothcomb and toilet claw
          5. tapetum lucidum
          6. bicornuate uterus

        2. One cool thing! The aye-aye

    1. Suborder Haplorhini
      1. Characteristics that distinguish them from the Strepsirhini
        1. lack rhinarium
        2. Reduced rostrum (more reliance on vision, less on smell)
        3. spatulate incisors
        4. simplex uterus

      2. Major groups
        tarsiers, platyrrhini (New World) and catarrhini (Old World)

      3. Trivia! Is it the right monkey?

        1. Family Tarsiidae (tarsiers) - phylogenetic relationships very unclear until recently

More great photos and videos of primates: