1. Order Hyracoidea

    Common name hyrax
    # of genera 3
    # of species 4
    Distribution Africa

    1. General characteristics

      1. Rabbit-sized, resemble rodents
      2. Have enlarged, rootless incisors
      3. Incisors separated from cheek teeth by a diastema
      4. Weird feet for an animal in their niche

        1. Shortish toes
        2. Moist, glandular adhesive pads on feet
        3. Flat nails that resemble hooves
        4. Sharp grooming claw on the second digit of their foot

    1. Ecology and behavior

      1. Herbivorous
      2. Live on rocks and in trees
      3. Colonial

  1. Order Proboscidea

    1. General characteristics

      1. Teeth

        1. Top incisors are enlarged into tusks
        2. Tusks are rootless
        3. No canines
        4. Cheek teeth (6) are shed from the front as they are worn and replaced from the back

      1. Limbs (video clip)

        1. Thick and straight
        2. Five digits on each foot
        3. Each digit has a hoof-like nail

      1. Trunk

        1. Fusion and elongation of upper lip and nose
        2. Prehensile
        3. Nostrils are at the end

      1. Skin is thick and covered with bristles

    1. Two living species? Or perhaps three?

    Scientific name Elephas maximus Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis
    Common name Asian elephant African bush or savannah elephant African forest elephant
    Size up to 5000 kg, 3 m tall up to 7000 kg, 4 m tall up to 6000 kg, 2.5 m tall
    Ears Relatively smaller Really big Smaller and rounder than L. africanus
    Forehead Domed Flat Flat
    Tusks Males only Both sexes, curved Both sexes, straighter than L. africanus
    Back Convex Concave Concave

    1. Ecology and behavior

      1. Grazers
      2. Matrilineal social groups
      3. Asian elephant and to a lesser extent African elephant are used as beasts of burden (but have NOT been domesticated)

  1. Order Sirenia

    Common names manatee, sea cow, dugong
    # of families 2 (Trichechidae, Dugongidae)
    # of genera 3
    # of species 5
    Distribution tropical or subtropical
    manatees: east coast of N and S America (N Carolina to Brazil), rivers in Florida and Brazil also West coast of Africa and river drainages
    dugong: Red Sea, Indian ocean, S.E. Asia, E coast of Asia, Australia

    1. General characteristics

      1. Fully aquatic
      2. Limbs

        1. lack hind limbs
        2. forelimbs modified as flippers

      1. Tail modified into flipper (extends laterally)
      2. Small eyes
      3. No pinnae
      4. External nares are high on the skull (on the upper surface of the snout), nasal bones are reduced or absent
        photo of nares closed when submerged
      5. Teeth

        1. Canines and sometimes incisors are absent
        2. Cheek teeth are lost from the front and replaced from the rear

      1. Lips are large and mobile
      2. Vibrissae on upper lip and body (otherwise hairless)

    1. Ecology and Behavior

      1. Eat aquatic vegetation