Photo of Dr. Wilkinson

Gerald S. Wilkinson


Department of Biology
University of Maryland
4094 Campus Drive
College Park, Maryland 20742

email: wilkinso @
phone: (301) 405-6942 (lab office)
fax: (301) 314-9358
Lab and office: 2223 Biology-Psychology Bldg

Research Interests

Dr. Wilkinson conducts research on the evolution of social behavior, with emphasis on how genetic mechanisms may influence the outcome of evolution. Recent research in the lab has addressed genomic conflict, sexual selection, DNA methylation, aging, cooperation and communication. Stalk-eyed flies are being used as a model system for studying the evolution of sexually selected traits. Past work implicated X chromosome meiotic drive as an evolutionary agent which can catalyze sexual selection. In collaboration with Josie Reinhardt at SUNY Geneseo and Rick Baker at the AMNH we have assembled the genomes of several stalk-eyed flies and discovered a candidate genetic element for meiotic drive that influences chromatin remodeling and transposable element defense.  In a separate collaboration with Steve Horvath we have used DNA methylation to predict age in bats and discovered that extreme longevity, which has evolved in multiple bat lineages, is associated with change in methylation near genes associated with immunity or mutated in tumors. Hibernation also slows epigenetic aging. Grants from the NSF and the NIH currently support projects on bats that aim to identify epigenetic changes associated with social stress, immune function, and sex differences in aging.


CPSP 218L College Park Scholars - Life Sciences Colloquium
HONR 278C Biology and Mythology of Bats
BSCI 360 Principles of Animal Behavior

Fall Migration Field trips to Cape May
BSCI 401
Animal Communication
BIOL 608W Genomic Conflicts
BIOL 608V Genetics and evolution of vocal learning and language
BIOL 608W Evolution of Cooperation
BISI 712 Responsible Conduct of Research
Seminars for Teachers Bats and Biology

Awards and Honors

1988 Searle Scholar
1989 Lilly Fellow
1997 Distinguished Scholar Teacher
2001 Faculty Research Award, College of Life Sciences
2003 Quest Award, Animal Behaviour Society
2003 Fellow, Animal Behaviour Society
2007 President, Animal Behaviour Society
2011 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
2013 Fellow, Institute of Advanced Studies, Berlin
2019 Gerrit Miller Award, North American Symposium on Bat Research

Spring 2015

Current Lab Members

Kim Paczolt Senior Lecturer Evolution of sex chromosome drive in stalk-eyed flies
Riva Riley Affiliate Assist Professor Social learning in cory catfish
Jack Rayner Postdoc Mechanisms of sex differences in aging in bats
Danielle Adams Postdoc Epigenetic differences in bats associated with aging and status
Katherine Armenta
Graduate student Ecological effects of bat interactions

Lab Alumni

Danielle Adams Postdoc University of Maryland dissertation
Bryan Arnold Assoc. Professor Illinois College dissertation
Jon Ballou Res. Scientist Emeritus Dept of Cons. Biol, National Zoological Park dissertation
Jon Beadell Analyst
Kevin Bennett Postdoc Penn State University dissertation
Leanna Birge Technical Writer Jacobs Technology
Kisi Bohn Assist. Res. Professor Johns Hopkins University dissertation
Jenny Boughman Professor Dept of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University dissertation
Gerry Carter Assoc. Professor Ohio State University dissertation
Sarah Christianson
Washington, D.C. dissertation
Eduardo Eizirik Professor Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil dissertation
Pete Fauth Professor Dept of Biology, Hartwick College
Catherine Fry Educational Manager Am. Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Erin Gillam Professor North Dakota State University
Ahmad Hariri Professor Dept of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University
Edward Hurme Postdoc University of Konstanz dissertation
Philip Johns Assoc. Professor Yale NUS College
Sue Davidson Sr. Vice President R/GA, New York, NY
Marion Kotrba Curator of Diptera Museum of Zoology, Munich
Pat Lorch Research Manager Cleveland Metroparks
Bea Mao Postdoc National Institute of Health dissertation
Kyle Miller-Hesed Professor Hesston College dissertation
Jason Munshi-South Professor Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University
Kim Paczolt Senior Lecturer Dept. of Biology, University of Maryland, College Park
Tami Panhuis Assoc. Professor & Chair Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan University
Traci Porter Assoc. Professor & Chair Dept of Biology, Salem College
Daven Presgraves Professor Dept of Biology, University of Rochester
Paul Reillo Director Tropical Conservation Institute, Florida International University
Josie Reinhardt Assoc. Professor Dept of Biology, SUNY Geneseo
Emily Rose Development Officer Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles dissertation
Julie Samy

Suzy Steele Research Scientist Dept of Conservation and Science, Dallas Zoo
Isabel Sullivan

John Swallow Professor & Assoc Dean Dept of Integrative Biology, University of Colorado, Denver
LaReesa Wolfenbarger Professor & Chair Dept of Biology, University of Nebraska, Omaha
Tim Wright Professor Dept of Biology, New Mexico State University
Genni Wright


Publications (Google Scholar, Research Gate)

1982 Wilkinson, G. S. and English-Loeb, G. M. Predation and coloniality in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). Auk 99: 459-467.


1984 Wilkinson, G. S. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat. Nature 308: 181-184.

1985 Wilkinson, G. S. The social organization of the common vampire bat_I_Pattern and cause of association. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17: 111-121.

  Wilkinson, G. S. The social organization of the common vampire bat_II_Mating system, genetic structure and relatedness. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 17: 123-134.

  Wilkinson, G. S. and McCracken, G. F. On estimating relatedness with genetic markers. Evolution 39: 1169-1174.

Wheelwright, N. T. and Wilkinson, G. S.  Space use by a neotropical water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae): sex and age-class difference. Biotropica, 165-169.

1986 Wilkinson, G. S. Social grooming in the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus. Animal Behaviour 34: 1880-1889.

1987 Wilkinson, G. S. Equilibrium analysis of sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 41: 11-21.


  Wilkinson, G. S. and Baker, A. E. M. Communal nursing among genetically similar house mice. Ethology 77: 103-114.


  Wilkinson, G. S. Altruism and cooperation in bats. In: Recent Advances in the Study of Bats (Fenton, M. B., Racey, P. A. and Rayner, J. M. V., eds.) pp. 299-323. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


  Wilkinson, G. S. Social organization and behavior. In: Natural History of Vampire Bats (Greenhall, A. M. and Schmidt, U., eds.) pp. 85-97. CRC Press, Boca Raton.


1988 Wilkinson, G. S. Reciprocal altruism in bats and other mammals. Ethology and Sociobiology 9: 85-100.


  Winkler, D. W. and Wilkinson, G. S. Parental effort in birds and mammals: Theory and measurement. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 5: 185-214.  
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1990 Wilkinson, G.S., Fowler, K. and Partridge, L. Resistance of genetic correlation structure to directional selection in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution 44:1990-2003.

  Wilkinson, G. S. Food sharing in vampire bats. Scientific American 262: 76-82. click to hear Radiolab summary from December, 2010

Sci Am article

1991 Wilkinson, G.S. and Chapman, A. Length and sequence variation in evening bat d-loop mt DNA. Genetics 128: 607-617

1992 Wilkinson, G. S. Information transfer at evening bat colonies. Animal Behaviour 44: 501-518.

  Wilkinson, G. S. Communal nursing in the evening bat Nycticeius humeralis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 31:225-235.


1993 Scherrer, J. A. and Wilkinson, G. S. Evening bat isolation calls provide evidence for heritable signatures. Animal Behaviour 46:847-860.

  Lorch, P., Wilkinson, G. S. and Reillo, P. R. Copulation duration and sperm precedence in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei (Diptera: Diopsidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 32:303-311.

  Wilkinson, G. S. Artificial sexual selection alters allometry in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni (Diptera: Diopsodae). Genetical Research 62:213-222.

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1994 Wilkinson, G. S. and Reillo, P.R. Female choice response to artificial selection on an exaggerated male trait in a stalk-eyed fly. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 255:1-6

1995 Wilkinson, G.S. Information transfer in bats. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 67:345-360.

wilk 1995

  Shaw, F.H., Shaw, R.G., Wilkinson, G.S. and Turelli, M. Changes in genetic variances and covariances: G whiz! Evolution 49:1260-1267.

1996 Wilkinson, G.S. and Fleming, T.H. Migration and evolution of lesser long-nosed bats, Leptonycteris curasoae, inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology 5:329-339

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1997 Wilkinson, G.S., Mayer, F., Kerth, G., and Petri, B. Evolution of repeated sequence arrays in the D-loop region of bat mtDNA. Genetics 146: 1035-1048

  Wilkinson, G.S. and Dodson, G.N. Function and evolution of antlers and eye stalks in flies. In: The Evolution of Mating Systems in Insects and Arachnids. (J. Choe and B. Crespi, eds.). pp. 310-328. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


  Presgraves, D., Severance, E. and Wilkinson, G.S. Sex chromosome drive in stalk-eyed flies. Genetics 147:1169-1180

1998 Wilkinson, G. S., Presgraves, D.C. and Crymes, L. Male eye span in stalk-eyed flies indicates genetic quality by meiotic drive suppresion. Nature 391:276-279

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  Wilkinson, G.S. and Boughman, J. W. Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats. Animal Behaviour 55:337-350

  Boughman, J.W. and Wilkinson, G.S. Greater spear-nosed bats discriminate group mates by vocalizations. Animal Behaviour 55:1717-1732

  Hariri, A., Werren, J.H., and Wilkinson, G.S. Distribution and reproductive effects of Wolbachia in stalk-eyed flies. Heredity 81:254-260

  Wilkinson, G.S., Kahler, H., and Baker, R.W. Evolution of female mate preferences in stalk-eyed flies. Behavioral Ecology 9:525-533

1999 Presgraves, D.C., Baker, R.H. and Wilkinson, G.S. Coevolution of sperm and female reproductive tract morphology in stalk-eyed flies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 266:1041-1048

  Wilkinson, G.S. and Taper, M. Evolution of genetic variation for condition dependent ornaments in stalk-eyed flies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 266:1685-1690

  Panhuis, T. and Wilkinson, G.S. Exaggerated male eye span influences contest outcome in stalk-eyed flies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 46:221-227

  Wilkinson, G.S. and Boughman, J.W. Social influences on foraging in bats. In: Mammalian Social Learning: Comparative and Ecological Perspectives. (H.O. Box and K.R. Gibson, eds.) pp. 188-204, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


  Tschapka, M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Free-ranging vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus, Phyllostomidae) survive 15 years in the wild. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 64:239-240.



  Lande, R. and Wilkinson, G.S. Models of sexual selection and meiotic drive in stalk-eyed flies. Genetical Research 74:245-253.

  Wilkinson, G.S. Cooperation. In: Frontiers in Life, V.8 Biology of Behavior. (P. Bateson and E. Allevi, eds.). Academic Press, New York

2000 McCracken, G.F. and Wilkinson, G.S. Bat mating systems. In: Reproductive Biology of Bats. (E.G. Crichton and P.H. Krutzsch, eds.). pp. 321-362. Academic Press, New York

  Swallow, J.G., Wilkinson, G.S. and Marden, J.H. Aerial performance of stalk-eyed flies that differ in eyespan. Journal of Comparative Physiology, B 170:481-487

  Flavin, M., O'Kelly, C.J., Nerad, T.A,. and Wilkinson, G.S. Cholamonas cyrtodiopsidis gen. n., sp n. (Cercomonadida), an endocommensal, mycophagous heterotrophic flagellate with a doubled kinetid. Acta Protozoologica 39: 51-60

2001 Porter, T. and Wilkinson, G.S. Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Journal of Zoology, London   253:383-390

  Baker, R.H., Wilkinson, G.S. and DeSalle, R. The phylogenetic utility of different types of molecular data used to infer evolutionary relationships among stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Systematic Biology  50:1-20 

  Wolfenbarger, L.L. and Wilkinson, G.S. Sex-linked expression of a sexually selected trait in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Evolution 55:103-110

  Wright, T. and Wilkinson, G.S. Population genetic structure and vocal dialects in amazon parrots.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268:609-616

  Baker, R.H. and Wilkinson, G.S. Phylogenetic analysis of eye stalk allometry and sexual dimorphism in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Evolution 55: 1373-1385

  Reggia, J.A., Schulz, R., Wilkinson, G.S. and Uriagereka, J. Conditions enabling the emergence of inter-agent signalling in an artificial world. Artificial Life 7:3-32

  Wilkinson, G.S. Genetic consequences of sexual selection in stalk-eyed flies. In: Model Systems in Behavioral Ecology. (L. Dugatkin, ed.) pp. 72-91. Princeton University Press, Princeton

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  Wilkinson, G.S. and Sanchez, M.L. Sperm development, age and sex chromosome meiotic drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis whitei.  Heredity 87:17-24

  Wilkinson, G.S. Bat blood donors. In: The New Encyclopedia of Mammals. (D. Macdonald and S. Norris, eds.) pp. 766-767. Andromedia Oxford Limited, Abingdon.

  Wilkinson, G.S. and Fry, C.L. Meiotic drive alters sperm competitive ability in stalk-eyed flies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 268:2559-2564

2002 Davidson, S.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Geographic and individual variation in vocalizations by male Saccopteryx bilineata (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae). Journal of Mammalogy 83:526-535

  Swallow, J.G. and Wilkinson, G.S. The long and short of sperm polymorphisms in insects. Biological Reviews 77:153-182

  Ortega, J., Maldonado, J.E., Arita, H.T., Wilkinson, G.S., Fleischer, R.C. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat Artibeus jamaicensis and cross-species amplification. Molecular Ecology Notes 2:462-464.

  Wilkinson, G.S. and South, J.M. Life history, ecology and longevity in bats. Aging Cell 1: 124-131 appendix

2003 Baker, R. and Wilkinson, G.S. Phylogenetic analysis of correlation structure in stalk-eyed flies (genus Diasemopsis, Diopsidae). Evolution 57: 87-103

  Wilkinson, G.S., Swallow, J.G., Christianson, S.J. and Madden, K. Phylogeography of sex ratio and multiple mating in stalk-eyed flies from southeast Asia. Genetica 117:37-46

  Wilkinson, G.S. and McCracken, G.F. Bats and balls: Sexual selection and sperm competition in the Chiroptera. In: Bat Ecology. (T.H. Kunz and M.B. Fenton, eds.) pp. 128-155. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

  Wilkinson, G.S. Social and vocal complexity in bats. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture and Individualized Societies. (F.B.M. de Waal and P.L. Tyack, eds.) pp. 322-341. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

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  Ortega, J., Maldonaldo, J.E., Wilkinson, G.S., Arita, H.T. and Fleischer, R.C. Male dominance, paternity and relatedness in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat (Artibeus jamaicensis). Molecular Ecology 12:2409-2415

  Wagner, K., Reggia, J.A., Uriagereka, J. and Wilkinson, G.S. Progress in the simulation of emergent communication and language. Adaptive Behavior 11:37-69.

2004 Bohn, K.M., Boughman, J.W., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Auditory sensitivity and frequency selectivity in greater spear-nosed bats suggest specializations for acoustic communication. Journal of Comparative Physiology, A 190:185-192

  Davidson, S.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Function of male song in the greater white-lined bat, Saccopteryx bilineata. Animal Behaviour 67:883-891

  Fry, C.L. and Wilkinson, G.S. Sperm survival in female stalk-eyed flies depends on seminal fluid and meiotic drive. Evolution 58:1622-1626

  Wright, T.F., Johns, P.M., Walters, J.R., Lerner, A.P., Swallow, J.G., and Wilkinson, G.S. Microsatellite variation among divergent populations of stalk-eyed flies, genus Cyrtodiopsis. Genetical Research 84:27-40

2005 Wilkinson, G.S. and Johns, P.M. Sexual selection and the evolution of fly mating systems. In: The Biology of the Diptera. (D.K. Yeates and B.M. Weigmann, eds.) pp. 312-339. Columbia University Press, New York

  Christianson, S.J., Swallow, J.G., and Wilkinson, G.S. Rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation in stalk-eyed flies. Evolution 59:849-857

  Wilkinson, G.S., Amitin, E.G., and Johns, P.M. Sex-linked correlated responses in female reproductive traits to selection on male eye span in stalk-eyed flies. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45:500-510

  Johns, P.M., Wolfenbarger, L.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Genetic linkage between a sexually selected trait and X chromosome meiotic drive. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 272:2097-2103
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  Swallow, J.G., Wallace, L.E., Christianson, S.J., Johns, P.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Genetic divergence does not predict change in ornament expression among populations of stalk-eyed flies. Molecular Ecology 14:3787-3800.

2006 Pitnick, S., Jones, K.E. and Wilkinson, G.S. Mating system and brain size in bats. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 273: 719-724.  recommended by F1000

Munshi-South, J. and Wilkinson, G.S. Diet influences life span in parrots (order Psittaciformes). Auk 123: 108-118.

  Munshi-South, J. and Wilkinson, G.S. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Bornean treeshrews (Tupaia spp.). Molecular Ecology Notes 6:698-699.

  Bohn, K.M., Moss, C.F. and Wilkinson, G.S. Correlated evolution between hearing sensitivity and social calls in bats. Biology Letters 2:561-564.

  Wilkinson, G.S., Johns, P.M., Kelleher, E.S., Muscedere, M.L. and Lorsong, A. Fitness effects of X chromosome drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1851-1860.

2007 Bohn, K.M., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Discrimination of infant isolation calls by female greater spear-nosed bats, Phyllostomus hastatus. Animal Behaviour 73: 423-432.

  Johns, P.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. X chromosome influences sperm length in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. Heredity 99: 56-61.

2009 Brunet-Rossinni, A.K. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Methods for age estimation and the study of senescence in bats.  In: Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. (T.H. Kunz and S. Parsons, eds.) pp. 315-325. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.


Bohn, K.M., Moss, C.F. and Wilkinson, G.S. Pup guarding by greater spear-nosed bats. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:1693-1703.

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Ribak, G., Pitts, M.L., Wilkinson, G.S. and Swallow, J.G.  Wing shape, wing size, and sexual dimorphism in eye-span in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).  Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98:860-871.


Baker, R.H., Morgan, J., Wang, X., Boore, J.L. and Wilkinson, G.S. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae). BMC Genomics  10:361


2010 Munshi-South, J. and Wilkinson, G.S. Bats and birds: Exceptional longevity despite high metabolic rates. Ageing Research Reviews 9:12-19.

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Wilkinson, G.S. and Birge, L.M. Social behaviour and speciation. In: Social Behavior: Genes, Ecology and Evolution. (T. Szekeley, A. Moore and J. Komdeur, eds.) pp. 619-649. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

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Birge, L.M., Pitts, M.L., Baker, R.H., and Wilkinson, G.S. Length polymorphism and head shape association among genes with polyglutamine repeats in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:227 (doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-227)

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Baker, R.H. and Wilkinson, G.S. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis). PLoS Genetics 6(9): e1001121 (doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001121) recommended by F1000

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2011 Husak, J.F., Ribak, G., Wilkinson, G.S. and Swallow, J.G.  Compensation for exaggerated eye stalks in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).  Functional Ecology 25: 608-616.  (10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01827.x)

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Arnold, B.D. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Individual specific contact calls of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) attract conspecifics at roosting sites.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 1581-1593. (10.1007/s00265-011-1168-4)

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Husak, J.F., Ribak, G., Wilkinson, G.S. and Swallow, J.G.  Sexual dimorphism in wing beat frequency in relation to eye span in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).   Biological Journal of the Linnean Society  104:670-679.

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Wright, G.S., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Social learning of a novel foraging task by big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus.  Animal Behaviour 82:1075-1083. (10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.07.044 )

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Christianson, S.J., Brand, C.L., and Wilkinson, G.S.  Reduced polymorphism associated with X chromosome meiotic drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. PLoS ONE 6:e27254. (10.1371/journal.pone.0027254)

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Baker, R.H., Kuehl, J.V., and Wilkinson, G.S.  The Enhancer of split complex arose prior to the diversification of Schizophoran flies and is strongly conserved between Drosophila and stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).  BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:354

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2012 Baker, R.H., Narechania, A., Johns, P.M. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 367: 2357-2375 (10.1098/rstb.2011.0287)

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2013 Carter, G.C. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:20122573 (10.1098/rspb.2012.2573) (Science News, Earth Sky)

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Husak, J.F., Ribak, G., Baker, R.H., Rivera, G., Wilkinson, G.S. and Swallow, J.G. Effects of ornamentation and phylogeny on the evolution of wing shape in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).   Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26:1281-1293  (10.1111/jeb.12133)

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Wilkinson, G.S., Johns, P.M., Metheny, J.D., and Baker, R.H. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly. PLoS ONE 8:e59826 (10.1371/journal.pone.0059826)

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Uriagereka, J., Reggia, J.A. and Wilkinson, G.S. A framework for the comparative study of language.  Evolutionary Psychology 11:470-492.

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Carter, G.G. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Cooperation and conflict in the social lives of bats.  In: Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation.  (R.A. Adams and S.C. Pedersen, eds.) Springer Science Press, New York. (10.1007/978-1-4614-7397-8_12)

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Carter, G.G. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Does food sharing in vampire bats demonstrate reciprocity?  Communicative and Integrative Biology 6:6 e25783. (10.4161/cib.25783)

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Wright, G.S., Chiu, C., Xian, W., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Social calls of flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus.  Frontiers Physiology 4:214 (10.3389/fphys.2013.00214).

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2014 Rose, E.G., Brand, C.L., and Wilkinson, G.S.  Rapid evolution of asymmetric reproductive incompatibilities in stalk-eyed flies.  Evolution 68:384-396 (10.1111/evo.12307)

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Wright, G.S., Chiu, C., Xian, W., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Social calls predict foraging success in big brown bats.  Current Biology 24(8):885-889. (10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.058). (Science, Scientific American)

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Reinhardt, J.A., Brand, C.L., Paczolt, K.A., Johns, P.M., Baker, R.H. and Wilkinson, G.S. Meiotic drive impacts expression and evolution of X-linked genes in stalk-eyed flies.  PLoS Genetics 10(5):e1004362 (10.1371/journal.pgen.1004362)

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Wilkinson, G.S., Christianson, S.J., Brand, C.L., Shell, W. and Ru, G.  Haldane's rule is linked to extraordinary sex ratios and sperm length in stalk-eyed fles.  Genetics 198:1167-1181 (10.1534/genetics.114.167536)
2015 Wilkinson, G.S., Breden, F., Mank, J.E., Ritchie, M.G., Higginson, A.D., Radwan, J., Jaquiery, J., Salzburger, W., Arriero, E., Barribeau, S.M., Phillips, P.C., Renn, S.C.P, and Rowe, L. The locus of sexual selection: Moving sexual selection studies into the post-genomics era.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28:739-755 (10.1111/jeb.12621)
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Arnold, B.D. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Female natal philopatry and gene flow between divergent clades of pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 96:531-540 (10.1093/jmammal/gyv058)

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Aktipis, C.A., Boddy, A.M., Jansen, G., Hibner, U., Hochberg, M.E., Maley, C.C., Wilkinson, G.S. Cancer across the tree of life: Cooperation and cheating in multicellularity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 370:20140219 (10.1098/rstb.2014.0219) (NY Times, middle school song)

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Boddy, A., Kokko, H., Breden, F., Wilkinson, G.S., Aktipis, C.A. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: A model of the evolution of cancer defenses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 370:20140220 (10.1098/rstb.2014.0220)

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Carter, G.G. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Intranasal oxytocin increases social grooming and food sharing in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.  Hormones and Behavior 75:150-153 (10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.10.006) hbcover

Carter, G.G. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Social benefits of non-kin food sharing by female vampire bats.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282:20152524.  (10.1098/rspb.2015.2524) (National Geographic, Science News)

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2016 Wilkinson, G.S., Carter, G.G., Bohn, K.M. and Adams, D.M.   Nonkin cooperation in bats.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 371:20150095.  (10.1098/rstb.2015.0095)

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Stanley, C.Q., Walter, M.H., Venkatraman, M.X., and Wilkinson, G.S. Insect noise avoidance in the dawn chorus of neotropical birds.  Animal Behavior 112:255-265  (10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.12.003)

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Lindholm, A.K., Dyer, K.A., Firman, R.C., Fishman, L., Forstmeier, W., Holman, L., Johannesson, H., Knief, U., Kokko, H., Larracuente, A.M., Manser, A., Montchamp-Moreau, C., Petrosyan, V.G., Pomiankowski, A., Presgraves, D.C., Safronova, L.D., Sutter, A., Unckless, R.L., Verspoor, R.L., Wedell, N., Wilkinson, G.S., and Price, T.A.R.  The ecology and evolutionary dynamics of meiotic drive. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 31(4):315-326 (10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.001)
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Baker, R.H., Narechania, A., DeSalle, R., Johns, P.M., Reinhardt, J.A. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Spermatogenesis drives rapid gene creation and masculinization of the X chromosome in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae). Genome Biology and Evolution 8(3):896-914 (10.1093/gbe/evw043)
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Carter, G.G. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Common vampire bat contact calls attract past food-sharing partners.  Animal Behaviour 116:45-51 (10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.03.005)
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Mao, B., Aytekin, M., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F.  Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) reveal diverse strategies for sonar target tracking in clutter. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 140, 1839-1849 (10.1121/1.4962496)
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2017 Carter, G.G., Wilkinson, G.S., and Page, R.A.   Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of perceived risk. Behavioral Ecology 28:565-569. (10.1093/beheco/arx006) arr pdf

Carter, G.G., Farien, D. R., Wilkinson, G.S.  Social bet-hedging in vampire bats. Biology Letters 13:20170112 (10.1098/rsbl.2017.0112) (CS Monitor) arr pdf

Paczolt, K.A., Reinhardt, J.A., and Wilkinson, G.S. Contrasting patterns of X-chromosome divergence underlie multiple sex-ratio polymorphisms in stalk-eyed flies.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30:1772-1784. (10.1111/jeb.13140) arr pdf

Mao, B., Moss, C.F. and Wilkinson, G.S. Age dependent gene expression in the inner ear of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). PLoS ONE 12(10): e.0186667
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2018 Aktipis, C.A., Cronk, L., Alcock, J., Ayers, J.D., Baciu, C., Balliet, D., Boddy, A., Curry, O.S., Krems, J.A., Munoz, A., Sullivan, D., Sznycer, D., Wilkinson, G.S., Winfrey, P.  Understanding cooperation through fitness interdependence.  Nature Human Behavior 2:429-431 ( arr pdf

Adams, D.M., Li, Y. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Male scent gland signals mating status in greater spear-nosed bats, Phyllostomus hastatus.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 44:975-986 (
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Fishbein, A.R., Loschner, J., Mallon, J.M. and Wilkinson, G.S. Dynamic sex-specific responses to synthetic songs in a duetting suboscine passerine.  PLoS ONE 13(8): e020235 arr pdf

Egert-Berg, K., Hurme, E., Greif, S., Goldstein, A., Herrera, L.G., Flores-Martinez, J.J., Valdes, A.T., Johnston, D.S., Eitan, O., Borissov, I., Shipley, J.R., Medellin, R.A., Wilkinson, G.S., Goerlitz, H.R., Yovel, Y. Resource ephemerality drives social foraging in bats.  Current Biology 28 (
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2019 Wilkinson, G.S., Carter, G.G., Bohn, K.A., Caspers, B., Chaverri, G., Farine, D., Gunther, L., Kerth, G., Knornschild, M., Mayer, F., Nagy, M., Ortega, J. and Patriquin, K.  Kinship, association and social complexity in bats.  Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 73:7 (
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Wilkinson, G.S. and Adams, D.M.  Recurrent evolution of extreme longevity in bats.  Biology Letters 15:20180860 ( arr pdf

Hurme, E., Gurarie, E., Greif, S., Herrera, L.G., Flores-Martinez, J.J., Wilkinson, G.S., and Yovel, Y.  Acoustic evaluation of behavioral states predicted from GPS tracking: a case study of a marine fishing bat. Movement Ecology 7:21 (
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Frankino, W.A., Bakota, E., Dworkin, I., Wilkinson, G.S., Wolf, J.B., Shingleton, A.W.  Individual cryptic scaling relationships and the evolution of animal form.  Integrative and Comparative Biology 59:1411-1428. (
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Fishbein, A.R., Fritz, J., Idsardi, W. and Wilkinson, G.S.  What can animal communication teach us about human language?  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 375: 20190042 ( PTRSBcover.jpg

Vernes, S.C. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Behaviour, biology, and evolution of vocal learning in bats.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society series B 375: 20190061 (
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Wilkinson, G.S.  Vampire bats.  Current Biology 29(23): R1216-1217. ( arr pdf

Adams, D.M., Nicolay, C. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Patterns of sexual dimorphism and mating systems.  In: Phyllostomid Bats: A Unique Mammalian Radiation, pp. 221-236 (T.H. Fleming, L. Davalos and M. Mello, eds.) Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Braun, M.J., Wilkinson, G.S. and Cade, B.S.  Comment on "Female toads engaging in adaptive hybridization prefer high-quality heterospecifics as mates". Science 370:eabd3905 10.1126/science.abd3905 arr pdf

Adams, D.M. and Wilkinson, G.S.  Male condition and group heterogeneity predict extra-group paternity in a Neotropical bat. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 74:136 ( arr pdf

Wright, G.S., Wilkinson, G.S. and Moss, C.F. Social facilitation in short-tailed fruit bats, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus) Behaviour 157:1193-1210  ( arr pdf
2021 Wilkinson, G.S., Adams, D.M., et al.  DNA methylation predicts age and provides insight into exceptional longevity of bats. Nature Communications 12:1615 ( (Nature Ecology and Evolution Blog) arr pdf

Lu, A. T., Z. Fei, A. Haghani, T. R. Robeck, J. A. Zoller, C. Z. Li, J. Zhang, J. Ablaeva, D. M. Adams,..., R. K. Wayne, G. S. Wilkinson, C. K. Williams, R. W. Williams, X. W. Yang, B. G. Young, B. Zhang, Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, Y. Zhao, J. Zimmermann, W. Zhou, J. Ernst, K. Raj and S. Horvath. Universal DNA methylation age across mammalian tissues. Preprint at arr pdf

Li, C. Z., A. Haghani,..., G. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Williams, X. W. Yang, B. G. Young, B. Zhang, Z. Zhang, P. Zhao, Y. Zhao, W. Zhou, J. A. Zoller, J. Ernst, A. Seluanov, K. Raj, V. Gorbunova, and S. Horvath. Epigenetic predictors of maximum lifespan and other life history traits in mammals. Preprint at

Haghani, A., Lu, A.T., Li, C.Z., Robeck, T.R., Belov, K., Breeze, C.E., Brooke, R.T., Clarke, S., Faulkes, C.G., Fei, Z., Ferguson, S.H., Finno, C.J., Gladyshev, V.N., Gorbunova, V., Goya, R.G., Hogan, A.N., Hogg, C.J., Hore, T.A., Kiaris, H., Kordowitzki, P., Banks, G., Koski, W.R., Mozhui, K., Naderi, A., Ostrander, E.A., Parsons, K.M., Plassais, J., Robbins, J., Sears, K.E., Seluanov, A., Steinman, K.J., Szladovits, B., Thompson, M.J., Villar, D., Wang, N., Wilkinson, G.S., Young, B.G., Zhang, J., Zoller, J.A., Ernst, J., Yang, X.W., Raj, K., Horvath, S. DNA Methylation Networks Underlying Mammalian Traits. Preprint at arr pdf
Bronikowski, A. M., Meisel, R. P., Biga, P. R., Walters, J. R., Mank, J. E., Larschan, E., Wilkinson, G. S., Valenzuela, N., Conard, A. M., de Magalhaes, J. P., Duan, J., Elias, A. E., Gamble, T., Graze, R. M., Gribble, K. E., Kreiling, J. A., Riddle, N. C. Sex-specific aging in animals: Perspective and future directions. Aging Cell. e13542 (

Sullivan IR, Adams DM, Greville LJS, Faure PA, Wilkinson GS Big brown bats experience slower epigenetic ageing during hibernation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 20220635. (
2023 Tarnovsky, Y.C., Taiber, S., Nissan, S., Boonman, A., Assaf, Y., Wilkinson, G.S., Avraham, K.B., Yovel, Y. Bats experience age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Life Science Alliance 6, e202201847 ( arr pdf

Reinhardt, J.A., Baker, R.H., Zimin, A.V., Ladias, C., Paczolt, K.A., Werren, J., Hayashi, C. and Wilkinson, G.S. Impacts of sex ratio meiotic drive on genome structure and function in a stalk-eyed fly.  Genome Biology and Evolution 17(7) (
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Paczolt, K.A., Welsh, G., and Wilkinson, G.S. X-chromosome drive is constrained by sexual selection and influences ornament evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 20230929 ( arr pdf

Haghani, A., (180 authors), Wilkinson, G.S., and Horvath, S. DNA methylation networks underlying mammalian traits. Science 381, eabq5693 ( arr pdf

Lu, A.T., Fei, Z., Haghani, A., (183 authors), Wilkinson, G.S., and Horvath, S. Universal DNA methylation age across mammalian tissues. Nature Aging ( arr pdf